Motivational value coding DA neurons encode an accurate prediction error signal, including strong inhibition by omission of rewards and mild excitation by omission of aversive events Figure 4A , right. Preferential activation of midbrain dopamine neurons by appetitive rather than aversive stimuli. Shady dealings in South Korean showbiz. The Behavioral and Biological Substrates. A pallidus-habenula-dopamine pathway signals inferred stimulus values. One hypothesis is that alerting responses are simply conventional reward prediction error signals that occur at short latencies, encoding the expected reward value of a stimulus before it has been fully discriminated Kakade and Dayan, In particular, these studies provide evidence that DA neurons are more diverse than previously thought.
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'Model Minority' Myth Again Used As A Racial Wedge Between Asians And Blacks
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“Model minority” myth hides the economic realities of many Asian Americans | Urban Institute
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